The Paris Agreement established a long-term goal of keeping the global average temperature well below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level by achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the second half of this century. To monitor and evaluate the impacts of climate change measures for implementing the Paris Agreement, accurate knowledge of emission trends and reliable GHG inventories are essential. Emission reporting from developing countries is particularly important.

There has been an increase in the number of observational platforms, such as satellites, aircraft, ships, and ground stations, for monitoring the concentrations of atmospheric GHGs and their surface fluxes. National and regional inventories of emissions have also been prepared at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The reliability of evaluations of natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has been improved in recent years by combining data regarding sources and sinks with advanced analysis systems such as "top-down" (with atmospheric observations and inverse modeling) and "flux upscaling" (with surface flux/emission network data and upscaling) methods. However, due to uncertainties in modelling tools, and limited observational data coverage, high uncertainty still remains in global or regional sources/sinks estimations, particularly for carbon dioxide (CO2)

Asia, as one of the world’s largest GHG emitters, has a responsibility to play an important role to turn the goals of Paris Agreement into reality. Urgent needs in Earth observation are to harmonize the increasing number of platforms for monitoring GHGs in Asia–Oceania, and to reduce their source/sink estimation uncertainties. Estimating emissions based on Earth observations for GHGs has enormous potential for providing additional sources of information that can complement national inventories. In particular, monitoring emission from expanding megacities, intermittent emissions from agricultural fields and forest (peat) fires, and emissions from large-scale land-use change are essential future targets.

Relevant Asian institutions and agencies for GHG observation and analysis will cooperate to improve up-to-date analysis systems and data coverage in Asia–Oceania for better estimation of emission distributions with sufficient accuracy, and to provide the data and knowledge to stakeholders in time with such activities as the Global Stocktake Process under the Paris Agreement.

   Nobuko SAIGUSA (National Institute for Environmental Studies; NIES), Japan;
   Yi LIU (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; IAP/CAS), China.

Day 1: Wednesday, 24 October

14:00-14:30 1. Opening GEO Carbon and GHG Initiative Session  
1) Introduction to the Session
2) “The GEO Carbon and GreenhHouse Gas Initiative” [through the internet],
Han DOLMAN (Chair, GEO Carbon and GHG Initiative Steering Committee) The Netherlands
[PDF 340KB]
[PDF 1.1MB]

14:30-15:50 2. Toward Domain-Overarching Carbon Cycle and GHGs Monitoring System: Atmosphere  
1) “What we have monitored from space by the decade-long GOSAT observation and how we improve by GOSAT-2”, Akihiko Kuze (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; JAXA), Japan [PDF 2.5MB]
2) “TanSat mission achievement and Chinese CO2 fluxes inversion from satellite observations”
Yi LIU (IAP/CAS), China
[PDF 2.7MB]
3) “Characteristics of atmospheric greenhouse gases over Asia-Pacific region observed by CONTRAIL aircraft project”
Toshinobu MACHIDA (NIES), Japan
[PDF 3.6MB]
4) Discussion
15:50-16:10 Break
16:10-17:10 3. Toward Domain-Overarching Carbon Cycle and GHGs Monitoring System: Oceans and Coasts  
1) “Ocean carbon cycle observation in JAMSTEC”, Akihiko MURATA (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology; JAMSTEC), Japan [PDF 5MB]
2) “Impact of Land-Ocean-Atmosphere interaction on the biogeochemistry of coastal India: Recent changes and vulnerable regions”, V.V.S.S. SARMA (National Institute of Oceanography; CSIR-NIO), India [PDF 5MB]
3) Discussion

Day 2: Thursday, 25 October

10:00-11:20 4. Toward Domain-Overarching Carbon Cycle and GHGs Monitoring System: Terrestrial  
1) “Observation of greenhouse gases and estimation of eddy covariance fluxes at urban and natural environments in India”, S. CHAKRABORTY 1, Y.K. TIWARI 1, P.K. Deb BURMAN 1, A. METYE 1, D. SARMA 2; P. GANAMOORTHY 3; S. MUKHERJEE 4, P. LOHANI 4, K. KUMAR 4 (1 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology; 2 Tezpur University; 3 M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai; 4 G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development), India
2) “Atmospheric inversions of global and regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon sources and sinks”, Fei JIANG (NanJing University), China
3) “Data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes across Asia using AsiaFlux observation network and remote sensing data”, Kazuhito ICHII (Chiba University), Japan
4) Discussion

[PDF 6.1MB]

[PDF 2.5MB]
11:20-11:40 Break  
11:40-12:40 5. Budget Calculations and Breakdown Across Scales to Support Policy Implementation: Issues in Asia
1) “Peatland ecosystem, restoration and climate change mitigation”, Haris GUNAWAN (Research and Development at the Peat Restoration Agency; BRG), Indonesia
2) “Inverse modelling of CO2, CH4 and N2O budgets using MIROC4-ACTM”, Prabir PATRA (JAMSTEC), Japan
3) Discussion
[PDF 8.8MB]

[PDF 10.3MB]
12:40-14:00 Lunch Break
14:00-16:00 6. Budget Calculations and Breakdown Across Scales to Support Policy Implementation: Global Initiatives
1) “Asia-Rice”, Thuy Le TOAN (Asia-RiCE/GEOGLAM; Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space; CESBIO), France
2) “Satellite data based transparent MRV system of GHGs emission from Asian agricultural ecosystems”, Hironori ARAI (University of Tokyo), Japan
3) “Recent events regarding the use of satellite GHG observation data to evaluate and improve GHG emission inventories”, Tsuneo MATSUNAGA (NIES)
4) “Data and services for environmental science and policies – the role of Research Infrastructures”, Jouni HEISKANEN (ICOS ERIC Head Office), Finland
5) “Integrated Global GHG Information System (iG3IS)”, Phil DECOLA (IG3IS Planning Team; Sigma Space Corporation), USA
6) Discussions from the Users' Perspective
[PDF 3.7MB]

[PDF 4.2MB]

[PDF 2.7MB]

[PDF 3.8MB]

[PDF 4.8MB]
16:00-16:20 Break  
16:20-17:20 7. Closing the GEO Carbon and GHG Initiative Session
1) Future Plan and Session Summary
2) Concluding Remarks

[PDF 1.8MB]